Category Archives: Amtrak

Amtrak is in the train business

Every time Amtrak transports passengers by bus, or cancels a train, it has failed in its mission. Unfortunately, Amtrak seems to have forgotten this. Indeed, the title of is “Train & Bus Tickets — National Railroad — USA & Canada.” Every time I see “bus,” I shudder.

I’ll give Amtrak a pass in places where there are no tracks, or for short distances, such as the connections between San Francisco and the East Bay. But it’s time to get serious about plugging the egregious holes in the system map. Amtrak should not be running a fleet of buses between Bakersfield and LA, or between cities where there used to be trains, like New Orleans to Florida, Duluth to the Twin Cities, or Minot to Missoula. Amtrak counts these places as being served by Amtrak, but one or two buses a day is not sufficient.

And when the unexpected happens, Amtrak seems to rush to put people on buses. There seems to be a mindset that it’s more important to get people to their destinations in a hurry than to get them there by train. Granted, for some people, travel time is paramount. But as I talk to passengers, I have become increasingly convinced that most would prefer a delayed arrival by train than a sooner arrival by bus (or air). Such passengers have chosen to take the train for medical, physical, or comfort reasons, and may be incapable or unwilling to travel by other means.

The railroad should remember that it’s a railroad, and make getting people to their destination by train its top priority.

To do that, you and I need to pressure our national, state and local officials to give Amtrak the staff and equipment it needs to meet this simple goal. Today’s passenger rail network is much too fragile and skeletal to do so. That urgently needs to change. And the freight railroads that host Amtrak need to be reminded that we the taxpayers have funded a good chunk of their infrastructure, and they were let off the hook for running passenger trains when Amtrak was created. It’s time to hold them to their end of the bargain.

Politicians, Amtrak, and the private railroads must get together and restore the rail network you and I paid for. That will benefit everyone in a 21st century where fossil fuels are rarer, more dangerous, and much more expensive.

Yes, it will cost money. But infrastructure needs to be a national priority, and trains are the most efficient way to make this country as mobile as it needs to be.

We’re seeing more support for passenger rail today than we have in the past few years. Now, let’s make our dreams a reality. Join NARP and your local rail advocacy organization. Contact your elected officials. The light at the end of the tunnel to a brighter future is a train!


A lesson for rail advocates

This week’s events can provide a useful lesson for those of us who support passenger rail. Public support for gay marriage turned around quickly in the past few years, because very few people could no longer honestly say, “I don’t know anyone who is gay.”

Now, it’s up to us to make it impossible for people to honestly say, “I don’t know anyone who takes trains.” Spread the word!


Anti-rail amendments fail in US House

All of the anti-Amtrak amendments sponsored by Rep. Posey of Florida and Rep. Sessions of Texas have failed in this evening’s votes, with both Republicans and Democrats supporting rail. Click the links below for a lists of how your representative voted. If they voted for rail, please thank them!

Rep. Sessions’ H.Amdt.407: An amendment to prohibit the use of funds to support Amtrak’s route with the highest loss, measured by contributions/(loss) per rider. This amendment would target the Sunset Limited (Louisiana – California).

Rep. Sessions’ H.Amdt.409: An amendment to prohibit the use of funds to support any Amtrak route whose costs exceed two times its revenues.

Rep. Posey’s H.Amdt.405: An amendment to prohibit the use of funds by the Department of Transportation to take any actions with respect to the financing of passenger rail projects along Florida’s East Coast.

Rep. Posey’s H.Amdt.411 : An amendment to prohibit the use of funds by the Department of Transportation to authorize exempt facility bonds to finance passenger rail projects that cannot attain the speed of 150 mph.

Rep. Posey’s H.AMDT.413: An amendment to prohibit the use of funds by the Department of Transportation to make a loan in an amount that exceeds $600 million under the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act.

7:24:20 P.M. H.R. 2577 On agreeing to the Posey amendment; Failed by recorded vote: 163 – 260 (Roll no. 313).
7:27:55 P.M. H.R. 2577 On agreeing to the Sessions amendment; Failed by recorded vote: 205 – 218 (Roll no. 314).
7:31:41 P.M. H.R. 2577 On agreeing to the Sessions amendment; Failed by recorded vote: 186 – 237 (Roll no. 315).
7:40:40 P.M. H.R. 2577 On agreeing to the Posey amendment; Failed by recorded vote: 148 – 275 (Roll no. 317).
7:45:53 P.M. H.R. 2577 On agreeing to the Posey amendment; Failed by recorded vote: 134 – 287 (Roll no. 318).

From tragedy, let’s make a better train system

This has been a very tough week for everyone who cares about trains, we the passengers, and the organizations that keep them running. The amount of verbal garbage that has been spouted by people with no knowledge has been astounding. (Check out what’s being said about the engineer’s personal life if you dare, but I warn you, you’ll need a strong stomach.)

The administrators of public forums like Amtrak Unlimited, and the many folks who manage the train-related Facebook groups, have been glued to our computers almost nonstop since Tuesday night, trying to keep up. The AU moderators, in particular, deserve BIG kudos for what they have been doing, volunteering their time and energy because they care about trains, and the people who ride and run them.


Now, let’s make sure that the American passenger rail system becomes the best and safest that it can be. Take time out from writing here, and tell your elected officials that you support trains! NARP has made it easy to contact Congress, but also tell your state and local leaders.

If this tragedy leads to an improved and safer system, then the passengers who died will not have done so in vain.


Northwest Rail Advocates conference, June 6, East Glacier, MT

The tragedy in Philadelphia has focused national attention on passenger rail. Please join us to help plan how we can advocate to build a better and safer system for everyone.

Registration for our annual Northwest Rail Advocates conference is still open. The conference is on June 6 in East Glacier, MT at the Glacier Park Lodge. Participating organizations are the National Assoc. of Railroad Passengers, All Aboard Washington and the Assoc. of Oregon Rail and Transit Advocates.

Full information is available on the All Aboard Washington website.

We have a great lineup of speakers and guests:

  • Mark Murphy, Amtrak, General Manager Long Distance Business Line
  • Rich Wessler, BNSF, Director of Passenger Operations
  • Jim Mathews, NARP President
  • Chris Dorrington, Montana Dept of Transportation, Bureau Chief, Multimodal Planning Bureau – Rail, Transit and Planning
  • Representatives of Montana’s Governor and Congressional delegation

We want to have a good turnout of passenger rail advocates to show strong support for our intercity passenger trains. If you haven’t registered yet we urge you to consider doing so today. Online registration is available until May 21. Mailed registrations (form available to print on registration page) must be postmarked by May 18.

Trains, Cities, and Equality

For better or worse, trains are inextricably linked to cities, and a healthy passenger rail system depends on vibrant urban areas.

Of course, trains are well-suited to serve locations of all sizes. But they have particular advantages in serving rural areas that have no other service, and in providing direct service to downtowns.

So it’s not surprising that Millennials want trains, and they want to live in cities with good transportation.

Those of us who participated in this year’s NARP Day on the Hill were pleased to discover that we got a much better reception than we did last year. There seems to be a glimmer of hope that we’ll return to seeing support from elected officials representing urban and rural, liberal and conservative districts, as has been the norm in the past.

But modern passenger rail won’t work if it’s surrounded by crumbling, hostile communities and infrastructure. Just like in the 1960s, trains will be left to rot if they are considered to be an urban amenity, and the better-off will retreat behind their gated communities and their locked personal cars.

These scenarios are already happening. Canada’s trains are not doing well because they are perceived as too elitist, despite their serving many places with no other transportation options.

So it’s too soon to expect a wholesale defection from the 20th century’s car- and airplane-centric ways of thinking. We have a lot of work to do.

The first step: Passenger train advocates need to build the largest possible tent. We need to welcome everyone: rich, poor; urban, rural; of all ages, abilities, races, backgrounds and political beliefs. That variety of support is imperative if we are to build a consensus for a modern, reliable, and efficient 21st-century rail system.

Trains need to become the place that people know they can be comfortable, and they need to travel and make connections between vibrant, healthy cities and towns.


What you can do to improve passenger rail

The recent vote in the House of Representatives shows that, while there is significant support for passenger rail, we have a lot of work to do to build the sort of robust, national rail network this country deserves.

Here are some suggestions for ways that anyone can do to help build that network, adapted from a discussion on Amtrak Unlimited.

  1. Join and support the National Association of Railroad Passengers. Please also join your state and local rail advocacy groups, since decisions on passenger rail are increasingly being made by state legislatures.
  2. Respond to newspapers, television, radio, blogs and social media posts about transportation issues. Correct misinformation whenever possible, and hammer home the point that people do ride trains!
  3. Contact your local, state, and national elected officials, and make sure that they understand how important passenger rail is to those who are not served by other modes, and/or who cannot or will not drive or fly. Make sure that they know about and understand the statistics showing that younger people are choosing not to be dependent on cars.
  4. Talk to your fellow passengers while aboard Amtrak. Encourage them to join NARP and advocate locally. NARP has business cards that you can edit to meet your needs, and print locally or buy online. Many passengers who rely on Amtrak have no idea how service decisions are made, and where the money is coming from.
  5. Testify before your state legislature, and even before Congress, about legislation that affects passenger rail.
  6. Write some emails, and follow them up with snail-mail to your local elected officials, whether or not they are “your party” or not. Hand address the envelope. Sometimes, you may not prevail in the short term, but the lessons to be learned about politics, PR, and back-room dealing will serve you well in the future. In summary, “If rail travel is your passion, at some point, you are going to have to get passionate!”
  7. Foster support for improved passenger rail in other groups you belong to.
  8. Foster diversity among rail supporters. Recruit members and supporters who don’t fall into the traditional “old white guy” railfan demographic.
  9. Word of mouth is gold. Post photos of your train travels on Facebook. Many of your friends will start asking questions and make comments about how fun it looks. The more that these friends start taking the train, the more their friends start doing it because they’ve seen the pictures and/or join them on their next trip.
    Getting the ridership numbers up is a good reflection on Amtrak and can create the demand for more service. Also, getting more people on the trains means more advocates for rail service.
  10. Push back against rail opponents who focus only on “subsidies” and costs. Transportation of all kinds is a public good, and should be evaluated in ways beyond dollars and cents. Steer discussions toward the points that Joe Boardman made recently.
    Amtrak President Joe Boardman…maintains a focus on income statements and balance sheets, but he is not single-minded. He considers equally important a responsibility to provide affordable and reliable intercity rail mobility to rural families, college students, vacationers, an aging population, city dwellers without automobiles, and a growing number of citizens now signaling that they clearly prefer public transportation.
    …Boardman is relentless in educating members of Congress on public opinion polls, validated by Amtrak ridership gains, that voters even in hard-core conservative districts are supportive of federal financial support for Amtrak….
    “Boardman advocates [that politicians] recommit themselves to advance and fund public works projects that have been the foundation of America’s financial, cultural and global strength—transcontinental railroads, inland waterways, an interconnected air travel network, urban transit, the Interstate Highway System, and, of course, a world-class national intercity rail passenger network.”
  11. Push for a robust, truly national system. Much of the country is served by one train a day or less, on one route, and this winter’s disruptions have shown how fragile such a system is. We need multiple daily frequencies on the routes we have, and then alternate routes, so that people can be served even when there are disruptions.
  12. Encourage hotels and convention centers to include train stations on their “how to get here” web pages.
  13. Participate in the many online communities that discuss passenger rail, such as Amtrak Unlimited and others, as well as the many Amtrak-related Facebook communities.

What other ideas do you have?

Edit: Some additional suggestions from NARP, from the January 2016 NARP Newsletter.

Ways To Help NARP in 2016
Thanks to NARP members, 2015 was a very successful year
for rail supporters. The association’s hard work will continue
in 2016, so we hope you’ll consider helping NARP continue its
work advocating for a strong rail system as part of the national
transportation network. To that end, are a few things you can
do to help the NARP staff during the year. You can see the full
list here:
1. Contact your congressional delegation. In 2015, we asked members to contact key legislators that led to, among other things, the defeat of anti-Amtrak provisions in the rail and transportation bills. If you didn’t send an email or make a
call in 2015, pledge to do so in 2016 when NARP sends eBlasts asking for your help.
2. Work with your local government. Now is the time to focus on grassroots outreach across the national network to
ensure that passenger advocates, mayors and state and local
officials are educated on the importance of rail as part of a
multimodal transportation system.
3. Encourage others to join NARP. “Over the long
term, NARP should have at least 100,000 members nationwide to amplify the voices of all of our citizens who support passenger rail as one of the most effective economic engines ever devised,” said President and CEO Jim Mathews. Tout the benefits of NARP membership and have them join here:
4. Make a donation. Your donations in 2015 helped us
achieve major victories, and we need to keep the momentum
going. You can do this with cash donations, securities and stock
gifts. Go here — — to see all the ways
you can contribute to NARP in 2016. And remember — it’s all
tax deductible!
5. Become a NARP leader. Applications are now being taken for those interested in being elected to the Council of Representatives as an At-Large Representative or those
interested in running for the NARP board (see page 5). The
deadline to apply is 11:59 p.m. (local time), March 31, 2016.
6. Join a local rail organization. NARP President and CEO Jim Mathews has emphasized the importance of grassroots efforts in the coalition for better rail. Check out this list of local groups to join.
7. Become a NARP volunteer. Are you looking to build your resume, add to your creative portfolio, develop new expertise or just trying to make a difference? We have a variety of volunteer openings available across the country right now.
Click here to see the complete list of available opportunities.

Will Amtrak trains run on time?

Most Amtrak trains travel on tracks that Amtrak doesn’t own. The legislation that created Amtrak in 1970 included a provision that passenger trains should have priority over freight trains. But that provision has expired, and today, passengers often get stuck behind coal, oil, grain and other goods.

Congress tried to rectify this by passing legislation that would create standards of on-time performance to which the private railroads could be held. But that legislation gave Amtrak, in conjunction with the Federal Railroad Administration, responsibility for writing the rules.

Which led to the case argued today in the Supreme Court. Is Amtrak a government agency that has the authority to write regulations, or is it a private entity that would gain unfair advantage over other railroads by such actions?

It’s up to the Supreme Court to make this decision. Congress could also change the law to remove Amtrak’s authority to participate in the writing of on-time performance standards. We’ll see what the decision will be in the upcoming months.

UPDATED: Press coverage of the court’s deliberations:

Amtrak Communities on Facebook

There are many train-related communities on Facebook, but here is a short list of communities about Amtrak and its routes. Please let us know of any additions or changes.

Note: if you don’t want to receive notifications from any group, click on the Notifications button in the bottom corner of the photo at the top of the group page, then select Off.

General groups

Groups related to specific trains

Amtrak’s Adirondack/Ethan Allen Express

Amtrak Auto Train

Amtrak California Zephyr:

Amtrak’s Capitol Limited

Amtrak’s Cardinal and Hoosier State

Amtrak Cascades

Amtrak’s Coast Starlight

Amtrak Downeaster (official page)

Amtrak’s Empire Builder

Amtrak Heartland Flyer:

Amtrak Hiawatha (no posts since 2012)

Amtrak’s Cardinal and Hoosier State

Hoosiers for the Hoosier State

Amtrak’s Illinois Zephyr/Carl Sandburg

Amtrak’s Midwest Corridors (Illinois Zephyr / Illini / Saluki / Carl Sandburg / Lincoln Service)

Amtrak’s Keystone Corridor

Amtrak Lake Shore Limited:

Amtrak Michigan Services: Pere Marquette (official page)

Amtrak Northeast Corridor Railfans

Amtrak Pennsylvanian

Amtrak Silver Star & Silver Meteor (and Palmetto)

Amtrak Southwest Chief

Friends of Sunset Limited to Florida

Amtrak Surfliners

Amtrak’s Texas Eagle

Amtrak Vermonter

Amtrak Virginia (official page for Richmond, Lynchburg, Norfolk and Newport News services)

Trains with no groups

The following trains appear to have no dedicated groups, although they are often covered by the general groups listed above. If anyone would be interested in moderating a group for one of these trains, please let us know.

Capitol Corridor
City of New Orleans
Empire Service/Maple Leaf
Missouri River Runner
San Joaquins
Wolverine/Blue Water

Advocacy organizations

National Association of Railroad Passengers

NARP Southeast Region

NARP Northwest Region

Also see NARP’s list of state organizations

AZ: Arizona Rail Passenger Association (no posts since 2011)


CO: ColoRail

CT:  Tri State Transportation Campaign

DE: Delaware Valley Association of Rail Passengers

FL: Amtrak/FEC Corridor Coalition – Passenger Rail in Florida and Florida For High Speed Rail

IA: Iowa Association of Railroad Passengers

KS: Passenger Rail Kansas,  Friends of the Northern Flyer Alliance and Oklahoma Texas Missouri Kansas Passenger Rail

LA: Louisiana Association of Rail Passengers

ME: Train Riders/Northeast

MI: Michigan Association of Railroad Passengers

NC: Carolinas Association for Passenger Trains

NH: New Hampshire Railroad Revitalization Association

NJ: New Jersey Association of Railroad Passengers, Lackawanna Coalition Transit Advocates , Tri State Transportation Campaign, and Delaware Valley Association of Rail Passengers

NM: Southwest Chief Coalition

NY: Empire State Passengers Association, Tri State Transportation Campaign

OH: All Aboard Ohio

OK: Friends of the Northern Flyer Alliance and Oklahoma Texas Missouri Kansas Passenger Rail

OR: Aorta – Association of Oregon Rail and Transit Advocates

PA: Keystone Association of Railroad PassengersWestern Pennsylvanians for Passenger Rail and Delaware Valley Association of Rail Passengers

SC: Carolinas Association for Passenger Trains


TX: TxARP, Texas Rail AdvocatesFriends of the Northern Flyer Alliance and Oklahoma Texas Missouri Kansas Passenger Rail

VT: Vermont Rail Action Network

WA: All Aboard Washington

WV: Friends of the Cardinal Train in WV

Photo Courtesy Fan Railer via Wikipedia. ACS-64 600 leads Northeast Regional train 186 through Wilmington Station on a rainy May 16th, 2014.

Notes from the RailPAC-NARP Steel Wheels in California Conference

The 2014 Steel Wheels conference was held in Sacramento on Saturday, November 15. Thanks to Alice for the meeting notes, which are condensed here.

Paul Dyson, RailPAC president, opened the conference, followed by Robert Stewart of NARP (see slides). Stewart noted that the key legislators on transportation in the new Congress will be all Republicans, and almost all from the midwest or west.

Stewart says that our message to Congress should be: make the investment in rail. He shared some of the points Tom Hall of Amtrak had made at the Salt Lake City NARP meeting last month: Food and beverage service creates other business.

For the long distance trains, the #1 issue is on time performance. Poor OTP costs Amtrak lots of money in fuel, crews, and loss of revenue.

Jim Mathews, new President of NARP, followed, with his vision of how rail advocacy could be improved. This was similar to his presentation at Salt Lake City. He said that individuals are the most effective advocates, and NARP wants to support that. He says that the consensus in DC is that HR 5449, the new PRIIA legislation, is going nowhere, but that it has some useful features (along with completely inadequate funding levels).

The keynote address was from Roger Dickinson, outgoing member of the California Assembly.  He said that Californians support rail, and that people will choose it if it is a viable option. Three of the top five performing corridors are in the state.

The new state budget has $1.7B in transportation funding, and 40% of the cap-and-trade revenue is set aside for transit and rail funding. This sort of predictable funding is a big deal.

State planning is aimed at creating sustainable communities, and there are some specific projects that are focusing on this. Some of them include:

  • Managing the dramatic increase of hazardous shipments by rail, especially Bakken oil.
  • Getting more more information on shipments to emergency personnel.
  • Improving the safe movement of freight, which has implications for moving people: Railroads should not use this as argument to reduce passenger rail.

Dan Leavitt, San Joaquin JPA, discussed the current and future plans for ACE.

ACE now offers 4 daily RT commuter trips, plus service to 49ers games (which makes money). They are working on making improvements to UP line so they can add trains, and connect to HSR and BART. They think they can get state and federal funds, only 25% local funds; they need financing to keep building on schedule.

The San Joaquin JPA has extensive bus connections; 45% of passengers include bus connections.

Future plans includes and additional train Oakland to Bakersfield, plus more service to Sacramento.San Joaquins and ACE will be running on same infrastructure Stockton to SAC. They also need to market better to diverse populations.

They are considering Business class service to Bakersfield, and want to hear from passengers about this. They are also considering mid-corridor starts so as to make earlier frequencies possible.

They do not see HSR hurting the San Joaquins. SJ will complement HSR service. They are working on common ticketing and reservations across agencies.

Jeff Morales, the CEO of the California High Speed Rail Authority, updated the group on the HSR project. He said that California is leading the way, while Washington, DC lags behind. They are still looking for federal support, though.

The project, he said, is not about the train, it is about shaping the future of the state. California needs to make big investments to change how people move, as it can’t keep doing what it has been doing, since traffic affects productivity, quality of life, and air quality.

HSR means that successful college students, such as Fresno State engineering students, may be able to stay in Fresno. College students have already expressed their support with the “I will ride” campaign.

Any new roads built will fill up immediately, as will increased capacity at airports. One of five flights leaving LA goes to Northern California, but short distances are inefficient. The HSR project will increase airport capacity by shifting some travel to HSR. Amtrak has increased its market share in the NEC from 37% to 80%+ since starting Acela.

HSR not just about connecting endpoints SF and LA, it’s about connecting people and economies of all population centers, and diversifying the economy. Fresno has the same population size as DC. HSR will tie the Central Valley with the rest of the state. I-5 doesn’t.

CHSRA is working with other agencies to shape growth sustainably They are working to improve local transit, and with Caltrain on electrification.

Morales recognizes that anything big is controversial: There were 2,000 lawsuits filed against the Golden Gate Bridge. The reorganization that led to the current University of California system passed by single vote. So did the state water system.

While there was no clear vision for HSR in the beginning, there are now $3M in contracts signed, and work is underway, even as they continue to work through legal challenges. And the state now has an ongoing funding commitment for transportation through cap-and-trade.

The HSR project wants to have ongoing positive effects, including:

  • Employment that can continue.
  • 30% of contract $ to local, small businesses. 160 such businesses are already under contract, along with 28 disabled/veteran businesses, and women-owned businesses.

Questions from the audience: Why Palmdale? Because Prop 1A says so. HSR is about connecting up the state, not just getting from endpoints A to B. Palmdale will also make rail connections to Las Vegas possible. There are now 19M trips between Southern California and Las Vegas, of which 17M are taken by car.

How to connect CalTrain to HSR on peninsula? Where will the service be? Is there capacity to run both? No HSR systems run at high speed through urban areas, so either tie them together or spend tons of money. The blended service will mean not a lot of new track, just some passing track. The want to take advantage of the large ridership between Burbank and San Jose, and want the two systems to be compatible.

Andrew Selden of the Minnesota Association of Rail Passengers presented his thesis that long-distance trains are actually more cost-effective than NEC corridor trains.

He started by saying that Amtrak’s business is carrying people over distance, so the appropriate metric is passenger-mile, not ridership.

Based on Amtrak’s fiscal 2013 figures, shown in the charts provided.

Revenue passenger miles / inventory passenger miles = load factor, which measures capital efficiency, and shows growth opportunity. A sold-out train is a growth opportunity. On the Empire Builder, every seat and berth turns over 2.5 times during a trip on average.

Selden has calculated that all of the Federal support for Amtrak goes to subsidize the NEC, so the incremental cost of long distance trains is zero. He says that the NEC market share number mentioned earlier is actually the modal split between air and rail, not total market share. If one adds cars and other modes, Amtrak’s market share in the NEC is about 1.5%, less than motorcycles. The total market share for long-distance trains is about 5%. So, Selden says, we are putting most of the Federal capital into the least productive places.

Armin Kick of Siemens discussed building 125mph locomotives and passenger cars for the All Aboard Florida project in Sacramento. Unfortunately, his slides are marked “confidential” and can’t be shared.

AAF has contracted with Siemens to build 5 trainsets for the Phase 1 section from Miami to West Palm Beach, and 5 more trainsets when AAF extends to Orlando Airport in phase 2. Siemens is also building locomotives for Amtrak, and the multi-agency procurements that includes WSDOT, IDOT, and CalTrans.

Siemens coaches will be their first single-level passenger cars for the US market. They will have such features as 39″ seat pitch, and windows that match the seat spacing.

Since the trainsets will include locomotives at both ends instead of push-pull, there will be more redundancy, to ensure continued HEP in Florida’s hot climate, and they will be able to expand the trainsets to 9 car consists when demand gets there.

Chad Edison, Deputy Secretary for Transportation, California State Transportation Agency (CALSTA), discussed the State Rail Program, and the reorganization of the various state agencies that deal with rail.

CALSTA is a cabinet-level agency, new in 2014, and his focus is rail. He briefly provided information about the JPA agreements, and how they are working on integration between the various agencies (there are 170 different agencies that provide public transportation services in California). They are looking to improve passenger experience through better connections and ticketing, so as to lower costs per passenger-mile.

Currently, 23% of daily trips are not using autos, which is up 8%, but they think they can double or triple this. They will begin the process of integrating 170 agencies with rail first, then major local systems, where lots of people are making connections.

HSR infrastructure will be one of the least expensive to operate so they want to get most out of it.